First Hospital-Based Greenhouse To Grow Organic Vegetables Year Round

Wouldn’t it be terrific to be able to grow organic vegetables year round? Having the benefit of all of that nutrient-dense and pesticide-free produce at your fingertips would be a windfall to your continued good health. Well, who better to to implement this idea than a hospital? After all, you have a population of patients who are trying to recover from their illnesses, as well as hospital staff who have to be at their physical best all of the time. Henry Ford West Bloomfield Hospital located in West Bloomfield, Michigan (coincidentally where I grew up) has become the first hospital in the nation to build and start a hospital-based greenhouse. I mean, such a great idea! Feed people nutritious organic vegetables and fruits so they can recover more quickly and to enhance the dining experience which provides positive psychological benefits that will also improve the overall experience for patients. A recent article by Sylvia Rector written for the Detroit Free Press highlights this concept.

First Hospital-Based Greenhouse To Grow Organic Vegetables Year Round

Perched on a 8-foot ladder, Michelle Lutz reaches into the leafy tops of the pole-bean vines growing toward the glass roof of Henry

grow organic vegetables

Grow organic vegetables year round in a greenhouse.

Ford West Bloomfield Hospital’s new $1-million hydroponic greenhouse.

“The first ones!” the resident farmer declares, holding up several young pods.

Already that morning she had picked red and green lettuces, heirloom cherry tomatoes, cucumbers, okra, edible nasturtiums and bunches of herbs for the hospital’s kitchen, which uses the produce in patients’ meals and its cafe.

Dozens of kinds of vegetables and herbs — five types of kale, 23 kinds of tomatoes, five varieties of basil, eggplants, squash, hot and sweet peppers, fresh herbs, microgreens and even strawberry plants — have been thriving since mid-summer in what Henry Ford officials say is the first hospital-based greenhouse in the nation.

It is surprisingly prolific. Hospital chefs no longer have to buy microgreens or basil, their most-used herb, because the greenhouse produces all they need. “If I manage this properly,” Lutz says, indicating her 12-by-20-foot hydroponic table, “this will produce 15,000 heads of lettuce in a year. For 240 square feet, that’s pretty incredible.”

But growing organic vegetables year-round for the hospital’s kitchens isn’t the only purpose of the gleaming, 1,500-square-foot glass structure and its adjoining educational center, both entirely funded by an anonymous donor.

The buildings, which will be unveiled Saturday, are designed to educate and inspire everyone from patients to the public to make healthier food choices — in keeping with the hospital’s mission of promoting wellness as well as treating illness.

And because of Michigan’s high childhood obesity rates, many of its educational center exhibits and programs are geared toward kids.

“We want to make sure that every single day we have yellow school buses coming here from all over southeast Michigan,” says hospital CEO Gerard van Grinsven. “We want to influence our young ones to start thinking differently about food and what they put in their bodies.”

His vision for the project doesn’t stop at the West Bloomfield campus. “Ultimately, we can take this to downtown Detroit and start producing food for the entire (Henry Ford) system — not have it just here,” van Grinsven says.

“This is not just about a little greenhouse. It’s about planting seeds,” he says.

Read the entire article here at freep.com:

To grow organic vegetables in a greenhouse attached to a major hospital is very leading-edge. Given recent and some would say drastic changes coming soon to a health care system near you, being able to improve nutrition as part of health care delivery is a natural step forward. We should all try to grow something in our own gardens and improve our health over the long run in order to decrease the risk of having to be in the hospital in the first place. Try your own hand at growing something in your backyard. If you happen to be in a position to have access to a greenhouse, it expands your growing season and your options as a gardener.

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Life expectancy would grow by leaps and bounds if green vegetables smelled as good as bacon.   —  Doug Larson

First Lady Michelle Obama: Vegetable Gardening For Health

First Lady Michelle Obama broke ground on the south lawn of the White House in 2009 to expand their kitchen garden. Endorsing vegetable gardening for better health and setting a positive example to help combat the rampant obesity epidemic in the U.S., the First Lady was assisted by students from the Bancroft Elementary School of Washington D.C.  The point of it was to help connect her family to the source of their food as well as to provide fresh produce for the First family’s table. An article by Julia Inslee for the Examiner provides some details and insight.

First Lady Michelle Obama: Vegetable Gardening For Health

In her speech at the Democratic National Convention on Tuesday night, Michelle Obama proved to the country what a passionate,vegetable gardening loving, intelligent, and conscientious woman she is. She showed the nation that she not only cares deeply for her family, but for the citizens of this country. She has taken her duties as First Lady seriously by championing projects that will affect positive change in the personal lives of Americans. This is no more apparent than in her endeavor to create a White House Kitchen Garden on the lawn of the most iconic house in the country in order to model healthy living and eating habits to a nation of skyrocketing obesity.

Original article here at examiner.com:

Vegetable gardening connects us with the source of our food and links us more tightly to that which gives us life. Our food is more than just a collection of calories we ingest every day. Eating is a spiritual activity that is supposed to enhance our lives. Filling our faces with empty calories and junk detracts from our physical health and robs our spirit. Connecting our bodies with the earth through the foods we eat nourishes our physical bodies and our spiritual nature. Sharing this valuable connection with others through vegetable gardening connects us all together.

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It’s bizarre that the produce manager is more important to my children’s health than the pediatrician.         — Meryl Streep

More Container Vegetable Gardening Tips And Tricks

When it comes to container vegetable gardening one of the best reasons to try it is to extend your growing season. If you get your late crops in on time but don’t want to worry about whether or not the first frost will wipe out your best efforts, you can always move the show indoors. That’s right! You can thumb your nose at Jack Frost and just move all of your plants indoors to finish up their growing. I mean, why should all of your efforts go to waste? It’s the best thing since climate control. This short article in MyWestTexas.Com provides some ideas for longer growing.

More Container Vegetable Gardening Tips And Tricks

An early frost can spell disaster for some plants in the fall vegetable garden. Fortunately, we can expect some advance notice of the

container vegetable gardening

Container vegetable gardening prevents frost damage late in the season by allowing plants to be moved indoors.Photo by FreezeFrameStudio c/o Photos.Com.

first frost. One way to be prepared to deal with an early frost is to grow your vegetables in containers. Containers can be relocated to a warm spot until the threat of frost has passed. Gardening in containers is more complicated than traditional gardening, but with careful attention to detail, you’ll be successful.

Let’s use tomatoes as our example. Very often, warm days follow the first frost of the season. This can help extend your growing season for a few more days; perhaps just long enough to allow your tomatoes to ripen on the plant and avoid searching out recipes for green tomatoes.

 By this time, you should be considering using transplants to achieve the greatest success before the first frost. Purchase young, vigorous tomato transplants from your nursery. Avoid tomatoes that have been too long in the nursery which you’ll recognize by their large and leggy appearance relative to their container. Also, steer away from tomatoes that appear wilted or diseased.
When it comes to some of the best ideas for container vegetable gardening, moving the show indoors has got to be at the top of the list. Why not try to plant some of your favorite vegetables in the late summer or early fall this year and get the best that nature has to offer when it turns cold outside (but where it’s still nice and warm inside).
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A world without tomatoes is like a string quartet without violins.  —  Laurie Colwin

Best Organic Vegetable Gardening Techniques For Conserving Water

The use of organic vegetable gardening techniques operates under the presumption that resources are precious and they should be used as effectively and efficiently as possible. After all, this is what nature does every day. One of our most precious resources is water. With the extremely dry conditions experienced by much of the United States this summer, it’s an issue that is of foremost importance. Here are two articles that appeared in the Rockford Register Star recently that I believe brought the issue home. Though I live north of Illinois, it’s been a brutal summer in my vegetable garden as well. It got me to thinking about next year and what I can do to make the best use of all the water my garden needs without using any more than absolutely necessary. Writer Meghan Bowe highlights some basic techniques for water conservation.

Best Organic Vegetable Gardening Techniques For Conserving Water

Using techniques like deep mulch, vertical gardening, sheet composting and no till improves soil tilth while also expending fewer

organic vegetable gardening techniques

The best organic vegetable gardening techniques naturally conserve precious resources such as water. Photo by Chris Bence c/o Photos.Com.

resources to have an abundantly producing vegetable garden. Though some watering has been necessary this very hot, dry season our garden is looking beautiful due to the sustainable techniques used.

The conditions this growing season have been challenging due to the lack of rainfall. It is very important that home gardeners start integrating water and energy saving methods into their gardening practices, as well as making smart plant selection choices that will weather drought conditions.

Read the original article here at blogs.e-rockford.com:

Writer Margaret Larson has added a few very useful and important tips for using water that conserves it but still puts it to best use in her own organic vegetable garden.

Vegetables cannot go dormant in times of drought like your typical lawn does, says Extension Horticulture Educator, Candice Miller. Therefore additional watering is necessary to sustain a productive vegetable garden in these times of drought.

In the vegetable garden, there are certain periods of growth in particular where having moisture is especially important. As a rule of thumb, water is most critical during the first few weeks of development, immediately after transplanting, and during flowering and fruit production.

Anytime there are fruits (squash, cucumber, eggplant, tomatoes for example) or pods being filled (peas, snap beans), water needs to be uniformly available. In addition, sweet corn requires even moisture from the time flowers (silks) are pollenated through kernel fill. Therefore, gardeners should be monitoring their garden right now to see what is producing fruit at all times in order to properly water.

Make sure you read about all of Margaret’s watering recommendations here:

The best organic vegetable gardening techniques always seek to maximize the use of scarce resources. This is in keeping with what nature does, and is always sustainable over the long run. As our climate shifts due to natural or man made causes, we’ll all have to become more conscious of the resources we do have stewardship over and how we all need to make the best use of them.

Let me know what you think and whether you are doing anything to conserve water in  your area. Please feel free to click on the like button to share this with a like-minded friend.

Weather means more when you have a garden. There’s nothing like listening to a shower and thinking how it is soaking in around your green beans.   —  Marcelene Cox

 

Raised Bed Vegetable Gardening In Bay View

Walk with me and take a step by step raised bed vegetable gardening tour of some points of interest here in Bay View, a community in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. I happen to know this area very well as I go there quite a lot. It also just happens to be where my wife grew up and many of our best friends still live. Here is a very entertaining and informative article I stumbled on from The Bay View Compass highlighting some of the local resident’s efforts at gardening in a space restricted environment while still achieving very respectable yields and improving the neighborhood all at the same time.

Raised Bed Vegetable Gardening In Bay View

Anodyne Café, 2920 S. Kinnickinnic Ave., sports a sidewalk vegetable garden on the south wall of the building. Lacee Perry, Matt McClutchy and their three children tend the garden next they’ve tucked up next to their café. Peppers and tomatoes proliferate in

step by step raised bed vegetable gardening

Using step by step raised bed vegetable gardening techniques in an urban setting can provide ample yields of produce in a small space. Photo by Jupiterimages c/o Photos.Com.

the petite garden. “We grow vegetables because they taste so good right out of ground, and it’s a good way to get the kids to eat more vegetables,” Perry said. “[Our children] can’t deny a cute little green bean they have planted, watered, loved, and picked themselves.”

The garden soil was enriched with compost from Sweet Water Organics. No synthetic fertilizers are used. Instead Perry and McClutchy use worm castings and tea to enrich the soil during the growing season. In fall, composted bedding from the family’s chicken coop is spread on the garden soil.

The biggest obstacle for gardeners Perry and McClutchy is the dearth of space for gardening. “Early spring rolls around and we have visions of stacks and stacks of home-canned goodies. The challenging part is to adjust those visions down to a city-size plot,” Perry said. “[Matt and I] were used to larger garden beds as kids. The city lots have forced us to plant in small beds carved out between swaths of concrete, both at our home and at Anodyne. Despite space constraints, the garden has been a source of delight. It’s great to talk to the customers and neighbors as they walk by about our garden’s progress and about their own patches of earth.” —JK

Read all of the creative efforts of Bay View’s resident gardeners at bayviewcompass.com:

There are many raised bed vegetable gardening techniques that will give surprisingly large yields of vegetable crops in confined spaces. Using raised bed methods also gives you more control over soil composition and makes it easier to weed and harvest. Just make sure that there is a little more frequent watering since raised beds tend to dry out more quickly than planting at ground level. I hope you enjoyed this small tour of this area that’s so close to my heart.

Please leave a comment and share your own thoughts and vegetable gardening experiences. You can even click on the like button to share this with a friend.

To create a garden is to search for a better world. In our effort to improve on nature, we are guided by a vision of paradise. Whether the result is a horticultural masterpiece or only a modest vegetable patch, it is based on the expectation of a glorious future. This hope for the future is at the heart of all gardening. —  Marina Schinz

Best Tips For Late Season Container Vegetable Gardening

I must admit that I truly enjoy container vegetable gardening. On the one hand, it does present a few potential challenges, what with the pots drying out faster than planting in the ground, or even in a raised bed setup. But I think some of those (minor) points are more than offset by the fact that you can bring your vegetable garden in much closer to the house, or even inside it for that matter. Since we’re getting into late summer and, dare I say it, early fall, I thought this article would be instructive. Writing for MySA in San Antonio, Texas, Calvin R. Finch gives us some tips and tricks about what we can plant and when we can plant it using containers during this time of the growing season.

Best Tips For Late Season Container Vegetable Gardening

Do you like gardening but don’t have the time or space for a full-sized raised-bed vegetable garden? Consider raising your favorite vegetables in containers.

container vegetable gardening

Best tips for fall container vegetable gardening. Photo by Kbirsa c/o Photos.Com.

Tomatoes, herbs, carrots, beets, radishes, onions, lettuce and greens can all be grown in containers as small as five gallons.

Plant your tomatoes in August. There are “Patio” tomatoes marketed specifically for containers but I don’t recommend them. The plants are very attractive, but the fruit is low quality.

Select a regular recommended variety such as Surefire, Solar Fire, 602, Tycoon, Celebrity or Dwarf Cherry Surprise (BHN 968).

Tomatoes require a container that is at least five gallons in capacity. Half of a whiskey barrel is ideal. The larger the container, the more room available for roots, moisture and nutrients.

Container vegetable gardening started in late summer provides an opportunity to significantly extend your growing season well into late fall. One of its most significant advantages is that if you do have colder weather earlier than anticipated, you can drag the whole show inside your house and not lose all of your hard work. How about that! So this season, why not try some container vegetable crops and see how it goes? You might be pleasantly surprised and well fed this fall.
Please feel free to leave a comment below and share your experiences with us. Click on the like button to share this with a friend.

To create a garden is to search for a better world. In our effort to improve on nature, we are guided by a vision of paradise. Whether the result is a horticultural masterpiece or only a modest vegetable patch, it is based on the expectation of a glorious future. This hope for the future is at the heart of all gardening.                                                                      —  Marina Schinz

Raised Bed Vegetable Gardening Easier On The Elderly

Raised bed vegetable gardening is a very good approach to help alleviate some of the drudgery of gardening. As we are all getting older (I should only speak for myself at this point), finding ways to lessen the need to bend, stoop and kneel while tending our plots is a welcome idea. As the young lady in the featured article has just turned 92, she certainly does appreciate being able to actively garden since her raised beds were built for her recently. In this short piece by Amy Menery for the Rapid City Journal, be sure to take a good look at the beds in the photo.

Raised Bed Vegetable Gardening Easier On The Elderly

When gardening has been not only a passion but a lifestyle, getting older shouldn’t hold you back, which is why Della Colman’s garden got a lift — about two feet off the ground.

raised bed vegetable gardening

Raised bed vegetable gardening makes for less work. Photo by George Doyle c/o Photos.Com.

Colman found it was getting difficult to work in her garden, which is laden with vegetables and flowers, so she had a raised bed built a few years ago. At 92, she can still get around the narrow garden passages behind her Gallery Lane home while using her hoe as a walking stick.

“Oh honey, I’ve been gardening all my life,” Colman said, when asked about her interest in growing things. “I was born in the mountains in North Carolina and all my folks were gardeners — they raised everything we ate.”

Onions, carrots, beets, corn, peas, cabbage, grapes and even raspberries fill the raised beds, but among them are also some colorful, less edible growths.

“There’s larkspur,” she says, pointing out purple flowers along the garden path, “and look, the little birds, they planted them in a row.”

Other cheery flowers have found their way into the garden, and, though pretty, Colman said she didn’t plant them.

Original article here at rapidcityjournal.com:

Raised bed vegetable gardening techniques can save us from a great deal of strain and unpleasantness by simply changing the way we relate to our plants. Bringing them up and letting more sunlight in and keeping more unwanted plants (aka. weeds) out gives you more time to enjoy your vegetable garden and lessens the amount of time you’re forced to spend doing the things you don’t enjoy so much or have a harder time doing physically. Get more pleasure out of your vegetable garden by eliminating some of the pain of maintaining it by setting up a raised bed.

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Gardeners are–let’s face it–control freaks. Who else would willingly spend his leisure hours wresting weeds out of the ground, blithely making life or death decisions about living beings, moving earth from here to there, changing the course of waterways? The more one thinks about it, the odder it seems; this compulsion to remake a little corner of the planet according to some plan or vision.                    

                                                                                         — Abby Adams

Elevate Your Planting With Raised Bed Vegetable Gardening

So what is it about raised bed vegetable gardening that’s all the rage? Well, when you think about it, there are several advantages. The first and foremost is that it’s much easier on your back. More importantly for your plants, the soil warms more quickly, it stays fluffy because you aren’t walking all over it, vegetable crops are easier to get to and there’s less area to take up weeds. Now there is one major drawback, and that is raised beds dry out more quickly. If you take some measures to arrange for drip irrigation and proper mulching, it can be made into a minimal problem. An article by Susan Mulvihill written for the Spokesman-Review highlights a recent experience between a student and her teacher.

Elevate Your Planting With Raised Bed Vegetable Gardening

Talk about your fast learners. In February 2011, Ann Windham attended a class I taught on raised-bed gardening and another one on drip-irrigation systems.

raised bed vegetable gardening

Elevate your planting game with raised bed vegetable gardening techniques. Photo by Audaxl c/o Photos.Com.

A few months later, she sent me an enthusiastic email, saying she and husband Bill had “the best garden ever,” thanks to their new raised beds and the drip-irrigation system. She included several photos of their beautiful, productive vegetable garden.

For many years, I’ve been extolling the virtues of growing veggies in raised beds. I’ve been gardening in them since 1981 and am absolutely sold on them. It was gratifying to get such positive feedback from a new convert and even more gratifying to be invited to their garden to see the results firsthand.

The Windhams live in Colbert. They have a sunny backyard with a view of Mount Spokane and their raised-bed garden is certainly a focal point. They primarily deal with deer in the area so the garden is fenced.

Ann admits she’s the main gardener but is quick to say Bill has been a hardworking partner. After all, he helped with the construction of the raised beds, filled them with many yards of soil, and built trellises and a garden bench.

“The bench was particularly important,” Ann said recently, “because we love to sit out in the garden each evening and watch things grow.”

They have 14 beds: nine are 3-by-9-feet long, and five are 3-by-14-feet long.

“We made them out of 2-by-10 common lumber,” Bill said, “and we screwed the boards together with decking screws. I wouldn’t make the beds any wider than 3 feet because otherwise it’s really a stretch when you’re tending the plants.”

They chose untreated lumber for their beds because Ann had learned in class that the chemicals used to treat wood – to make it weather better – will leach into the soil. Once that happens, vegetable roots will take up those chemicals. Because of this, gardeners should avoid using pressure-treated lumber, railroad ties or any wood treated with chemicals or sealants.

To read about all of their suggestions and tips, go to spokesman.com:

Try your hand at raised bed vegetable gardening as soon as your growing season permits. You will find that the overall control you can have over your garden will be much greater and there will actually be less work. Let’s see…more produce and less work. Works for me.

Leave a comment and share your thoughts. Have you planted raised beds before? If so, let us know what you ended up with and how it all went.

Weather means more when you have a garden.  There’s nothing like listening to a shower and thinking how it is soaking in around your green beans.                                                                                                                             — Marcelene Cox

Planning And Planting A Fall Vegetable Garden

Planting a fall vegetable garden requires planning. You have to know when the first frost is likely (going to) occur. You also have to know the time to maturity of each of your plantings so you can beat that date and have time to harvest your crop. Here is an article by Karol Kelly for The Telegraph that covers some of the basics you should know before planting.

Planning And Planting A Fall Vegetable Garden

August is filled with hot days and wilted plants. While we have been fortunate to receive afternoon showers the past few weeks, it is

fall vegetable garden

Planning and planting your fall vegetable garden. Photo by Jupiterimages c/o Photos.Com.

usually only a temporary respite for our lawns and gardens. With the promise of cooler temperatures blowing in during the next couple of months, this is an ideal time to begin planning for a fall vegetable garden.

As with spring gardens, till the soil and add lime and fertilizer as recommended by your soil test. In the absence of a soil test, start with 10 pounds of 10-10-10 per 1,000 square feet. Follow the label directions if you are using a liquid fertilizer. Crops such as cabbage, lettuce, onion, greens, peppers and radish are considered heavier feeders and require more fertilization.

Fall vegetables vary in the number of days required to reach maturity. A radish plant can take as few as 25 days to maturity, while carrots, lettuce and cabbage can take up to 80 days. To maintain a constant supply of lettuce and radish, seed every couple of weeks through early October. Transplants can be set out later.

A fall vegetable garden is easy to start and to grow once you know when to plant and when to harvest. By growing later in the season you can extend your growing season and make the most of your garden space.
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CABBAGE, n. A familiar kitchen-garden vegetable about as large and wise as a man’s head. The cabbage is so called from Cabagius, a prince who on ascending the throne issued a decree appointing a High Council of Empire consisting of the members of his predecessor’s Ministry and the cabbages in the royal garden. When any of his Majesty’s measures of state policy miscarried conspicuously it was gravely announced that several members of the High Council had been beheaded, and his murmuring subjects were appeased.”          — Ambrose Bierce

Fall Vegetable Gardening

So you’ve decided to do some fall vegetable gardening this year. Well, there are a few things you should know. You can in fact get certain crops going late in the regular growing season. In fact, some are really ideal for starting out late in the summer or very early fall, depending on where you happen to be living. Many crops thrive in the fall coolness and will take a frost or two and come back for more. Here is a short piece by Neil Sperry written for the Star- Telegram that gives a short primer on what to do for a great fall season, and how to protect your investment.

Fall Vegetable Gardening

Mid-August might not pop to mind as a prime planting time, but for several important vegetable crops and for three popular

fall vegetable gardening

Fall vegetable gardening extends the growing season and provides new crops to enjoy. Photo by Stockbyte c/o Photos.Com.

annual flowers, it’s their turn for the spotlight.

You’ll find the various “cole” crops at the top of the mid-August vegetable planting list. Cabbage is the most popular, but the list also includes broccoli, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts. All thrive in fall’s cooler weather. In fact, all are capable of withstanding light freezes prior to harvest. But they need to be planted now.

The biggest challenge in growing these plants in the fall might actually be in finding the transplants. You’ll want fresh and vigorous plants of well-suited varieties, and your best chance of finding them now will probably be through local independent retail garden centers and feed stores.

Set the transplants into well-prepared garden soil. All of them will need 18 to 24 inches of space between plants within their rows, and the rows should be 36 to 42 inches apart to permit easy access. If you’re careful to select transplants that have been in full sun in the nursery, setting them into the garden now should present no problems. Plant them into small “wells” an inch or two deep to facilitate watering. Soak them every day for the first week or two, to allow them time to develop good roots.

Cabbage loopers are the bane of our spring cole crops. The larvae chew multitudes of holes in the leaves. They render cabbage useless as a leafy vegetable, and they weaken the growth and productivity of the other types. They’ll probably also find your fall plantings, so be on the lookout for the white butterflies that serve as your early warning signal. They seek the cole crops and lay their eggs on the leaves.

As soon as you see the horseshoe-shaped caterpillars starting to feed, apply the biological worm control Bacillus thuringiensis, known more commonly simply by its initials, “B.t.” It’s available as a dust or a spray, and it’s the only control, organic or inorganic, that works on these pests. It stops their feeding immediately, and they will die within 24 hours. It can be applied within 24 hours of harvest.

Fertilize all of these crops with a high-nitrogen food similar to one you might use on your lawn grass. Most of our soils test too high in phosphorus (middle number of the analysis) anyway, so nitrogen will be the prime need.

Read the entire article here at star-telegram.com:

Fall vegetable gardening can be both an adventure as well as a very enjoyable and delicious enterprise. Make sure you protect your veggie investment from those bugs and pests who want to get a free lunch at your expense. Try it and see what you can grow. You just might surprise yourself.

Share your thoughts and experiences with us. Have you tried fall vegetable gardening before? Give us some advice. Click the link and share it with friends.

When weeding, the best way to make sure you are removing a weed and not a valuable plant is to pull on it.  If it comes out of the ground easily, it is a valuable plant.                                                                                                                                            — Author Unknown